Study on the variation of mechanical properties in PVC formula when applying different aluminium hydroxide grades – Apyral 40CD and KMT A-1 compare

Study on the variation of mechanical properties in PVC formula when applying different aluminium hydroxide grades – Apyral 40CD and KMT A-1 compare

  • Apyral 40CD and KMT A-1 compare

By:

Olivia Ren and Frank Chen

KMT INDUSTRIAL HK LIMITED

www.kmtindustrial.com; olivia@kmtindustrial.com  

Abstract:

Formulation is: PVC 100%, DOP 45%, Dibasic/Tribasic 3/4, Aluminium Hydroxide 60%, ZB 5%, ATO 5%, Zinc Stearate 2%, EBS 0.5%, Anti-oxygen 0.3%, Test condition 19℃,40%; and we want to compare the mechanical properties of two grades Apyral 40CD and KMT A-1, finally the result shows the melt flow index of KMT A-1 is 4.8, the elongation at break is 323.7, the tensile Strength is 16.36 MPa, the limit oxygen index is 30.4; the melt flow index of Apyral 40CD is 3.65, the elongation at break is 327.1, the tensile strength is 19.64 MPa, the limit oxygen index is 30.6.

Key works: Flame Retardant, Aluminium Hydroxide, PVC.

1. Introduction

At present, the main flame retardants in China are halogen and phosphate class which is up to 80%. The halogen flame retardant produces more smoke density and highly toxic gases which occurs secondary damage to human. More than 80% of fire deaths are caused by smoke and toxic gas produced by above materials. Therefore, in addition to the flame retardant efficiency, low toxicity and low smoke are also essential indicators of flame retardants. Low smoke, zero halogen, low toxic and environmental-friendly flame retardant has become a hot spot and development trend in the future.

ATH is an added flame retardant. When being heated, ATH generates water and metal oxide. Water absorb heat and metal oxide covers the surface of polymer to stop the burning. In this paper, we choose two grade ATH with almost the similar particle size and apply them into the same PVC formula to discuss its different effects on the mechanical property such as LOI, tensile strength, elongation at break, MFI.

2. Materials and Testing

  1. Materials prepare

PVC, DOP, Anti-Oxygen, ATO, Zinc Stearate, EBS, Anti-oxygen, Aluminium Hydroxide A-1, purity is about 99.8%,whiteness is 99%, particle size (D50) is 1-2μm, from KMT INDUSTRIAL HK LIMITED; Aluminium hydroxide Apyral 40CD, purity is about 99.5%, whiteness is about 98%, the particle size is 1.3-1.5μm,from Brenntag speciality.

Banbury, Plate Curing Press; Mould; SY-6210-A Electronic Pulling Force Machine; Oxygen Index Meter.

  1. Preheat the Banbury to 100℃-120℃, the mixing time is 30 minutes, the mixing temperature is 200±10℃.

Put the dough into the mould which is preheated well in advance (the thickness of the mould frame is 1±0.1mm),then use plate curing press tabletting(prepress:10MPA, pressure:10-15mpa, temperature:220℃, preheat for 2Min), after tabletting cooled to 40-50℃ and got the samples.

  1. Composite Standard Test Strips made from dies, the tensile properties tested on electronic tensile machine, the limit oxygen index is tested by oxygen index tester and the melt flow index is tested by the melt flow index tester.
  1. Testing of combustion performance(GB/T 2406.2-2009)

2. Results and Discussion

2.1 Two grade aluminium hydroxide powders

Table1. Fire retardant ingredients used in this study
 KMT A-1Apyral 40 CD
Test condition20℃,40%20℃,40%
Particle size (D50)1.8711.446
Purity (%)99.899.5
White (%)9998
Surface coated or notnot coatednot coated

2.2 Test result of Melt Flow Index in PVC formula

Table 2 shows under the formula: PVC 100%, DOP 45%, Dibasic/Tribasic 3/4, Aluminium Hydroxide 60%, ZB 5%, ATO 5%, Zinc Stearate 2%, EBS 0.5%, Anti-oxygen 0.3% in the same composition system: the result shows that the Melt flow index of KMT A-1 is 4.8 and that of Apyral 40CD is 3.65.

Table 2. ATH In PVC Formula Test Data
PVC Formula12
PVC100100
DOP4545
Dibasic/Tribasic3/43/4
Apyral 40CD60 
KMT A-1 60
ZB55
ATO55
Zinc Stearate22
EBS0.50.5
Anti-oxygen0.30.3
 
MFI(190℃.5KG)3.654.8

2.3 Test result of Elongation at Break in PVC formula

Table 3 shows under the formula: PVC 100%, DOP 45%, Dibasic/Tribasic 3/4, Aluminium Hydroxide 60%, ZB 5%, ATO 5%, Zinc Stearate 2%, EBS 0.5%, Anti-oxygen 0.3% in the same composition system: the result shows that the elongation at break of KMT A-1 is 323.7 and that of Apyral 40CD is 327.1.

Table 3. ATH In PVC Formula Test Data
PVC Formula12
PVC100100
DOP4545
Dibasic/Tribasic3/43/4
Apyral 40CD60 
KMT A-1 60
ZB55
ATO55
Zinc Stearate22
EBS0.50.5
Anti-oxygen0.30.3
 
Elongation at break(%)327.1323.7

2.4 Test result of Tensile Strength in PVC formula

Table 4 shows under the formula: PVC 100%, DOP 45%, Dibasic/Tribasic 3/4, Aluminium Hydroxide 60%, ZB 5%, ATO 5%, Zinc Stearate 2%, EBS 0.5%, Anti-oxygen 0.3% in the same composition system: the result shows that the Tensile strength of KMT A-1 is 16.36 MPa and that of Apyral 40CD is 19.64 MPa.

Table 4. ATH In PVC Formula Test Data
PVC Formula12
PVC100100
DOP4545
Dibasic/Tribasic3/43/4
Apyral 40CD60 
KMT A-1 60
ZB55
ATO55
Zinc Stearate22
EBS0.50.5
Anti-oxygen0.30.3
 
Tensile Strength(MPa)19.6416.36

2.5 Test result of Limit Oxygen Index in PVC formula

Table 5 shows under the formula: PVC 100%, DOP 45%, Dibasic/Tribasic 3/4, Aluminium Hydroxide 60%, ZB 5%, ATO 5%, Zinc Stearate 2%, EBS 0.5%, Anti-oxygen 0.3% in the same composition system: the result shows that the Limit Oxygen index of KMT A-1 is 30.4 and that of Apyral 40CD is 30.6.

Table 5. ATH In PVC Formula Test Data
PVC Formula12
PVC100100
DOP4545
Dibasic/Tribasic3/43/4
Apyral 40CD60 
KMT A-1 60
ZB55
ATO55
Zinc Stearate22
EBS0.50.5
Anti-oxygen0.30.3
 
LOI(90*10*1)30.630.4

3. Conclusion

ATH In PVC Formula Test Data
PVC Formula12
PVC100100
DOP4545
Dibasic/Tribasic3/43/4
Apyral 40CD60 
KMT A-1 60
ZB55
ATO55
Zinc Stearate22
EBS0.50.5
Anti-oxygen0.30.3
MFI(190℃.5KG)3.654.8
Elongation at break(%)327.1323.7
Tensile Strength(MPa)19.6416.36
Test Condition19℃,40%24℃,35%
Particle size(D50)1.4461.871
LOI(90*10*1)30.630.4

Through this test data sheet, we can see that for the melt flow index, PVC formula with A-1 is 1.15 higher than the Apyral 40CD; for the elongation at break, PVC formula with A-1 is 3.4 % lower than Apyral 40CD; for the tensile strength, PVC formula with A-1 is 3.28 lower than Apyral 40CD; for limit oxygen index, Apyral 40CD and A-1 are almost the same.

Company Profiles…

KMT INDUSTRIAL HK LIMITED, headquartered in Gansu, China, research and manufacturer magnesium hydroxide, natural brucite powder.

www.kmtindustrial.com

Contact: olivia@kmtindustrial.com

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